Water that is used in the hydraulic fracturing process is sourced from the surface water such as rivers and lakes, municipal supplies, groundwater such as aquifers, wells, and freshwaters. Once the water is collected, it is piped or headed to the location where it is to be stored in lined tanks or impoundments until it has to be used for fracturing or drilling.
The amount of water needed in the production of shale gas varies significantly from well to well. Here are some of the factors that influence the volume of the water required:
– The length, depth, and a number of the horizontal section the fractures: Longer the segment, more the water requirement for the process of fracturing. There is a trend for longer horizontal sections. Around two years ago, these segments would have measured approximately 3,000 feet long, but now that the technology has advanced so they are capable of covering up to 6,000 feet.
– The physical qualities of the shale play: Shale play differs significantly when it comes to their physical features such as thickness, depth, and total porosity. This results in the variation in the requirement of the water.
The fracturing stage is one of the most water exhausting stages which use up to 90 percent of the total water that is used in the process. Even with people thinking otherwise, the water requirements are low as compared to other segments such as industrial, agricultural, etc. However, chances are that the right to use water sources may become more limited for the operators in a dry region as they face the problem of exhaustion of water resources and in such areas, the water availability and flows vary according to the seasons.
After the process of fracturing, volumes of the injected fluid of fracture will stream back to the surface combined with water formation that includes liquefied minerals from the construction. While there is no prior agreed classification, flow back, and water that was produced are together known as “wastewater.” The recovery rate of the water, specifically, the amount of recovered wastewater from the injected volume as a fraction of the hydraulic fracturing process, both in the long-term as well as short-term, depends on the well and the shale.
There are shales that are dry and that have a lower recovery of water rates like Marcellus, and there are shales that are wet, and that comes with higher recovery water rates.
Every water sourcing is unique, and most are different depending upon the location, state, provincial, federal rules and regulation that can make water sourcing and delivery process complex and burdensome. Hence, Flo-Dynamics’ services have pulled together a specialized team of professionals with both knowledge and experience to productively navigate the complications of the process. Flo-Dynamics Systems Inc advisers and specialists have a proper education in the field of Geography, Geology, Environmental Science, Natural Resource Management, and Hydrology. Their team is proficiently experienced in water sourcing services according to the state water regulatory organization, oil and gas operation, conservative districts, and water-focused environmental companies.
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